Drinking water quality standards

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Drinking water quality standards describes the quality parameters set for drinking water . Despite the truism that every human on this planet needs drinking water to survive and that water can contain many harmful constituents, there are no universally recognised and accepted international standards for drinking water. Even where standards do exist, and are applied, the permitted concentration of individual constituents may vary by as much as ten times from one set of standards to another.

Many developed countries specify standards to be applied in their own country. In Europe this includes the Drinking water directive and in the USA the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes down standards as required by the Safe Drinking Water Act. For countries without a legislative or administrative framework for such standards, the World Health Organisation publishes guidelines on the standards that should be achieved.

Where standards do exist most are expressed as guidelines or targets and very few have any legal basis or are subject to enforcement. The European Drinking Water Directive and the Safe Water Act in the USA are two exceptions where there is a requirement to legally comply with specific standards.

In Europe this includes a requirement for member states to enact appropriate local legislation to mandate the directive in each country. Routine inspection and, where required, enforcement is enacted by means of penalties imposed by the European Commission on non-compliant nations.
Countries with guideline values as their standards include Canada which has guideline values for a relatively small suite of parameters, New Zealand where there is a legislative basis but water providers have to make "best endeavours" to comply with the standards and Australia

Range of standards
Although drinking water standards are frequently referred to as if they are simple lists of parametric values, standards documents also specify sampling location choice, sampling methods, laboratory analytical methods and laboratory AQC. In addition a number of standards documents also make reference to the statistical treatment of results, dealing with temporal and seasonal variations, summation of related parameters and treatment of apparently aberrant results.

Parametric values

(Parametric value also has a specific and different mathematical meaning)
A parametric value in this context is most commonly the concentration of a substance, e.g. 30 mg/l of Iron. It may also be a count such as 500 E. coli per litre or a statistical value such as the average concentration of copper is 2 mg/l. Many countries not only specify parametric values that may have health impacts but also specify parametric values for a range of constituents that by themselves are unlikely to have any impact on health. These include colour, turbidity, pH and the organoleptic parameters (taste and smell).

It is possible and technically acceptable to refer to the same parameter in different ways that may appear to suggest a variation in the standard required. For example, Nitrite may be measured as Nitrite ion or expressed as N. A standard of Nitrite as N of 1.4 mg/l would be equal to a nitrite ion concentration of 4.6 mg/l - an apparent difference of nearly three fold.

Australian standards

Drinking water quality standards in Australia have been developed by the Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) in the form of the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. These guidelines provide contaminant limits (pathogen, aesthetic, organic, inorganic and radiological) as well as guidance on applying limits for the management of drinking water in Australian drinking water treatment and distribution systems.

European Union standards

The following parametric standards are included in the Drinking Water directive and are expected to be enforced by appropriate legislation in every country in the European Union. Simple parametric values are reproduced here but in many cases the original directive also provides caveats and notes about many of the values given.
  • Acrylamide 0.10 μg/l
  • Antimony 5.0 μg/l
  • Arsenic 10 μg/l
  • Benzene 1.0 μg/l
  • Benzo(a)pyrene 0.010 μg/l
  • Boron 1.0 mg/l
  • Bromate 10 μg/l
  • Cadmium 5.0 μg/l
  • Chromium 50 μg/l
  • Copper 2.0 mg/l
  • Cyanide 50 μg/l
  • 1,2-dichloroethane 3.0 μg/l
  • Epichlorohydrin 0.10 μg/l
  • Fluoride 1.5 mg/l
  • Lead 10 μg/l
  • Mercury 1.0 μg/l
  • Nickel 20 μg/l
  • Nitrate 50 mg/l
  • Nitrite 0.50 mg/l
  • Pesticides 0.10 μg/l
  • Pesticides - Total 0.50 μg/l
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 0.10 μg/l Sum of concentrations of specified compounds;
  • Selenium 10 μg/l
  • Tetrachloroethene and Trichloroethene 10 μg/l Sum of concentrations of specified parameters
  • Trihalomethanes — Total 100 μg/l Sum of concentrations of specified compounds
  • Vinyl chloride 0.50 μg/l

United States standards

In the USA the legislation controlling drinking water quality is the Safe Water Act which is implemented federally by the EPA. However many individual States also apply their own standards which may be more rigorous or include additional parameters. Standards set by the EPA in the USA are not international standards since they apply to a single country. However many countries look to the USA for appropriate scientific and public health guidance and may adopt USA standards.

World Health Organisation guidelines

These guidelines include the following recommended limits on naturally occurring constituents that may have direct adverse health impact:
  • Arsenic 10μg/l
  • Barium 700μg/l
  • Boron 2400μg/l
  • Chromium 50μg/l
  • Fluoride 1500μg/l
  • Selenium 40μg/l
  • Uranium 30μg/l
For man-made pollutants potentially occurring in drinking water the following standards are proposed.
  • Cadmium 3μg/l
  • Mercury 6μg/l For inorganic mercury
Organic species:
  • Benzene 10μg/l
  • Carbon tetrachloride 4μg/l
  • 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 1000μg/l
  • 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 300μg/l
  • 1,2-Dichloroethane 30μg/l
  • 1,2-Dichloroethene 50μg/l
  • Dichloromethane 20μg/l
  • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 8 μg/l
  • 1,4-Dioxane 50μg/l
  • Edetic acid 600μg/l
  • Ethylbenzene 300 μg/l
  • Hexachlorobutadiene 0.6 μg/l
  • Nitrilotriacetic acid 200μg/l
  • Pentachlorophenol 9μg/l
  • Styrene 20μg/l
  • Tetrachloroethene 40μg/l
  • Toluene 700μg/l
  • Trichloroethene 20μg/l
  • Xylenes 500μg/l

Comparison of parametric values

The following table provides a comparison of a selection of parameters concentrations listed by WHO, the European Union and the EPA.
" indicates that no standard has been identified by editors of this article and ns indicates that no standard exists.
ParameterWorld Health OrganizationEuropean UnionUnited States
Acrylamide0.10 μg/
Arsenic10μg/l0.1 μg/l10μg/l
Antimonyns5.0 μg/l
Benzene10μg/l1.0 μg/l
Benzo(a)pyrene0.010 μg/l
Boron2.4mg/l1,0 mg/l
Bromate10 μg/l
Cadmium3μg/l5,0 μg/l
Chromium50μg/l50 μg/l
Copper2.0 mg/l
Cyanide50 μg/l
1,2-dichloroethane3.0 μg/l
Epichlorohydrin0.10 μg/l
Fluoride1.5 mg/l1.5 mg/l4 mg/l
Lead10 μg/l15 μg/l
Mercury6μg/l1.0 μg/l
Nickel20 μg/l
Nitrate50 mg/l
Nitrite0.50 mg/l
Pesticides (individual)0.10 μg/ l
Pesticides — Total0.50 μg/l
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons l0.10 μg/
Selenium40μg/l10 μg/l
Tetrachloroethene and Trichloroethene40μg/l10 μg/l

WHO's drinking water standards 1993

WHO's Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, set up in Geneva, 1993, are the international reference point for standard setting and drinking-water safety.
Normally found in fresh water/surface water/ground waterHealth based guideline by the WHO
AluminiumAl 0,2 mg/l
AmmoniaNH4< 0,2 mg/l (up to 0,3 mg/l in anaerobic waters)No guideline
AntimonySb< 4 μg/l0.005 mg/l
ArsenicAs 0,01 mg/l
Asbestos No guideline
BariumBa 0,3 mg/l
BerilliumBe< 1 μg/lNo guideline
BoronB< 1 mg/l0,3 mg/l
CadmiumCd< 1 μg/l0,003 mg/l
ChlorideCl 250 mg/l
ChromiumCr+3, Cr+6< 2 μg/l0,05 mg/l
Colour Not mentioned
CopperCu 2 mg/l
Cyanide CN- 0,07 mg/l
Dissolved oxygenO2 No guideline
FluorideF< 1,5 mg/l (up to 10)1,5 mg/l
Hardnessmg/l CaCO3 No guideline
Hydrogen sulfideH2S No guideline
IronFe0,5 - 50 mg/lNo guideline
LeadPb 0,01 mg/l
ManganeseMn 0,5 mg/l
MercuryHg< 0,5 μg/l0,001 mg/l
MolybdenumMb< 0,01 mg/l0,07 mg/l
NickelNi< 0,02 mg/l0,02 mg/l
Nitrate and nitriteNO3, NO2 50 mg/l total nitrogen
Turbidity Not mentioned
pH No guideline
SeleniumSe< < 0,01 mg/l0,01 mg/l
SilverAg5 – 50 μg/lNo guideline
SodiumNa< 20 mg/l200 mg/l
SulfateSO4 500 mg/l
Inorganic tinSn No guideline
TDS No guideline
UraniumU 1,4 mg/l
ZincZn 3 mg/l
Organic compounds
GroupSubstanceFormulaHealth based guideline by the WHO
Chlorinated alkanesCarbon tetrachlorideC Cl42 μg/l
DichloromethaneC H2 Cl220 μg/l
1,1-DichloroethaneC2 H4 Cl2No guideline
1,2-DichloroethaneCl CH2 CH2 Cl30 μg/l
1,1,1-TrichloroethaneCH3 C Cl32000 μg/l
Chlorinated ethenes1,1-DichloroetheneC2 H2 Cl230 μg/l
1,2-DichloroetheneC2 H2 Cl250 μg/l
TrichloroetheneC2 H Cl370 μg/l
TetrachloroetheneC2 Cl440 μg/l
Aromatic hydrocarbonsBenzeneC6 H610 μg/l
TolueneC7 H8700 μg/l
XylenesC8 H10500 μg/l
EthylbenzeneC8 H10300 μg/l
StyreneC8 H820 μg/l
Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)C2 H3 N1 O5 P130.7 μg/l
Chlorinated benzenesMonochlorobenzene (MCB)C6 H5 Cl300 μg/l
Dichlorobenzenes (DCBs)1,2-Dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB)C6 H4 Cl21000 μg/l
1,3-Dichlorobenzene (1,3-DCB)C6 H4 Cl2No guideline
1,4-Dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB)C6 H4 Cl2300 μg/l
Trichlorobenzenes (TCBs)C6 H3 Cl320 μg/l
Miscellaneous organic constituentsDi(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA)C22 H42 O480 μg/l
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)C24 H38 O48 μg/l
AcrylamideC3 H5 N O0.5 μg/l
Epichlorohydrin (ECH)C3 H5 Cl O0.4 μg/l
Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD)C4 Cl60.6 μg/l
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)C10 H12 N2 O8 200 μg/l
Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)N(CH2COOH)3200 μg/l
OrganotinsDialkyltinsR2 Sn X2No guideline
Tributil oxide (TBTO)C24 H54 O Sn22 μg/l
SubstanceFormulaHealth based guideline by the WHO
AlachlorC14 H20 Cl N O220 μg/l
AldicarbC7 H14 N2 O4 S10 μg/l
Aldrin and dieldrinC12 H8 Cl6/
C12 H8 Cl6 O
0.03 μg/l
AtrazineC8 H14 Cl N52 μg/l
BentazoneC10 H12 N2 O3 S 30 μg/l
CarbofuranC12 H15 N O35 μg/l
ChlordaneC10 H6 Cl80.2 μg/l
ChlorotoluronC10 H13 Cl N2 O30 μg/l
DDTC14 H9 Cl52 μg/l
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropaneC3 H5 Br2 Cl1 μg/l
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)C8 H6 Cl2 O330 μg/l
1,2-DichloropropaneC3 H6 Cl2No guideline
1,3-DichloropropaneC3 H6 Cl220 μg/l
1,3-DichloropropeneCH3 CHClCH2 ClNo guideline
Ethylene dibromide (EDB)Br CH2 CH2 BrNo guideline
Heptachlor and heptachlor epoxideC10 H5 Cl70.03 μg/l
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)C10 H5 Cl7 O1 μg/l
IsoproturonC12 H18 N2 O9 μg/l
LindaneC6 H6 Cl62 μg/l
MCPAC9 H9 Cl O32 μg/l
Methoxychlor(C6H4OCH3)2CHCCl320 μg/l
MetolachlorC15 H22 Cl N O210 μg/l
MolinateC9 H17 N O S6 μg/l
PendimethalinC13 H19 O4 N320 μg/l
Pentachlorophenol (PCP)C6 H Cl5 O9 μg/l
PermethrinC21 H20 Cl2 O320 μg/l
PropanilC9 H9 Cl2 N O20 μg/l
PyridateC19H23ClN2O2S100 μg/l
SimazineC7 H12 Cl N52 μg/l
TrifluralinC13 H16 F3 N3 O420 μg/l
Chlorophenoxy herbicides (excluding 2,4-D and MCPA)2,4-DBC10 H10 Cl2 O390 μg/l
DichlorpropC9 H8 Cl2 03100 μg/l
FenopropC9H7Cl3O39 μg/l
MCPBC11 H13 Cl O3No guideline
MecopropC10H11ClO310 μg/l
2,4,5-TC8 H5 Cl3 O39 μg/l
Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products
GroupSubstanceFormulaHealth based guideline by the WHO
n = 0,
1 or 2
3 mg/l
ChlorineCl25 mg/l
Chlorine dioxideClO2No guideline
IodineI2No guideline
Disinfectant by-productsBromateBr O3-25 μg/l
ChlorateCl O3-No guideline
ChloriteCl O2-200 μg/l
Chlorophenols2-Chlorophenol (2-CP)C6 H5 Cl ONo guideline
2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP)C6 H4 Cl2 ONo guideline
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP)C6 H3 Cl3 O200 μg/l
FormaldehydeHCHO900 μg/l
MX (3-Chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone)C5 H3 Cl3 O3No guideline
TrihalomethanesBromoformC H Br3100 μg/l
DibromochloromethaneCH Br2 Cl100 μg/l
BromodichloromethaneCH Br Cl260 μg/l
ChloroformCH Cl3200 μg/l
Chlorinated acetic acidsMonochloroacetic acidC2 H3 Cl O2 No guideline
Dichloroacetic acidC2 H2 Cl2 O250 μg/l
Trichloroacetic acidC2 H Cl3 O2100 μg/l
Chloral hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde)C Cl3 CH(OH)210 μg/l
ChloroacetonesC3 H5 O ClNo guideline
Halogenated acetonitrilesDichloroacetonitrileC2 H Cl2 N90 μg/l
DibromoacetonitrileC2 H Br2 N100 μg/l
BromochloroacetonitrileCH Cl2 CNNo guideline
TrichloroacetonitrileC2 Cl3 N1 μg/l
Cyanogen chlorideCl CN70 μg/l
ChloropicrinC Cl3 NO2No guideline
Manfaat Air (Benefits of Water)


Kualitas Air | © 2010 by DheTemplate.com | Supported by Promotions And Coupons Shopping & WordPress Theme 2 Blog